Ozone Therapy Infected Blood
The Effect of Ozone on Plasmodium Falciparum-Infected Red Blood Cells
Viebahn-Hänsler1, B. Lell2, P.G. Kremsner2
1Dr.J. Haensler GmbH, Nordring 8, D-76473 Iffezheim, Germany
2Department of Parasitology, Institut for Tropical Medicine, University of Tuebingen,
Wilhelmstrasse 27, D-72074 Tuebingen, Germany
In the case of plasmodium-infected red blood cells we have been able to demonstrate for the first time that ozone has an effect on intracellular parasites without direct ozone/parasite contact, and without visible haemolysis. According to the initial parasitaemia, we found an inhibitive effect of ozone by factors between 3 and 7. The active mechanism involved can be explained via the reaction of ozone with the unsaturated fatty acids of RBC membrane and a consequent penetration of hydroxy hydroperoxides into the cells. The parasites are subjected to an increased oxidative stress, and their reproductive cycle is disrupted. Ozonation was carried out at a concentration of 80 µg/ml in a RBC suspension. Optimal growth inhibition was obtained by applying ozone twice, i.e. immediately before and after infection.
Introduction and Discussion of Problems
The highly efficient microbicide effect of ozone has been in worldwide use for over 100 years in wastewater treatment and drinking water disinfection, and the literature on this subject is correspondingly extensive. The mechanisms of its bactericidal and virostatic or virus-inactivating effect in vitro are well known, whereby the principal interest is directed at human
pathogenic microorganisms ( Masschelein 1996 and Brockmann and Botzenhardt 1999). All studies named, however, relate to surface waters and infected aqueous solutions which have for the most part had ozone/oxygen gas mixtures passed through them for a specific time until obtaining the best result. In this way, it has been possible to determine relevant concentration-time concepts in the case of most microorganisms. In cases where these organisms are protected from ozone attack by external protein membranes or impurities, the combined application of ultrasound and ozone in addition to H2O2 with additional UV irradiation is effective.
We are faced with completely different problems in the case of intracellular microorganisms, which – protected by the outside cell membrane – are able to escape the direct attack of ozone, Plasmodium-infected red blood cells here being a typical example. Where the aim is to affect the reproductive cycle of intracellular microorganisms by using ozone without destroying the cellular structure of the host cell, careful ozone dose-finding and a standardized cell model is necessary. As the highly reactive O3 molecule is converted completely into peroxidic products in the red blood cell membrane, i.e. it is not able to penetrate into the intracellular space, direct contact between the ozone and the target microorganism is impossible.More